Gout: Traditional and New Diet Recommendations

Gout is a serious condition that results from the accumulation of uric acid and its derivatives in the body. This ailment is characterized by a violation of protein metabolism in the body and for this reason it belongs to metabolic diseases. Since with gout, uric acid accumulates in the blood, and urate salts accumulate in the tissues, the ailment manifests itself in attacks of acute recurrent arthritis. Unfortunately, gout cannot be completely cured, but the frequency of attacks and the duration of flare-ups can be significantly reduced. Adherence to an anti-gout diet is of paramount importance in the treatment and prevention of gout.

Purine metabolism in the body

When we say that the root cause of gout is high levels of uric acid in the blood, we do not quite understand how and why this happens. To understand this process, let's turn to the basics of biochemistry. So, uric acid is the end product of purine processes in the body. When the synthesis and decay of purine nucleotides is disturbed, metabolic products, and primarily uric acid, accumulate.

where do purine elements come from in the body

But where do the purine elements come from in the body? Everything is very simple: they get inside directly with food, and they are also able to be produced independently by the cells of our body. The process of synthesis and breakdown of purine elements is very complex, for example, adenines (purine derivatives) break down into other elements, which are then transformed into xatines, which are then converted into uric acid. In humans, by the way, like in primates, it is uric acid that is the end product of metabolic reactions, and its excess is excreted from the body in the urine.

It must be said that uric acid in normal quantities does not harm the body, especially if it is not retained in it. According to permissible norms, the level of uric acid in the blood in men is 3. 4-7. 0 mg per 100 ml, and in women - 2. 4-5. 7 mg per 100 ml.

In case of metabolic disorders or diseases of the renal system, the level of uric acid in the body can be greatly increased. Excessive accumulation of uric acid salts provokes the development of gout. However, if you trace this biochemical chain initially, it becomes clear that the main role in the development of gout is assigned to the excessive consumption of meat products, meat and salt.

Purine compounds in food

The daily intake of purine compounds should be no more than 600-1, 000 milligrams of purines. Modern medical research clearly demonstrates that only purines of animal origin affect the development of gout and kidney stones, but plant purines are completely harmless. Also provoke an acute attack of gout, but to a lesser extent, milk purines can also.

Gout Symptoms

The main symptoms of gout:

  1. Acute unbearable pain in the joints, which tends to develop at night, accompanied by reddening of the skin and swelling of the joint.
  2. Acute attacks of gouty arthritis are repeated at regular intervals. However, without adequate treatment, these intervals are shortened, and the attacks become longer and more intense.
  3. The appearance of tofuses (abnormal thickening of the subcutaneous tissue).
  4. Attacks of renal colic. Deposition of uric acid salts provokes the development of nephrolithiasis and nephropathy.
The main symptoms of gout

Gouty lesions occur on:

  • metatarsophalangeal joint of the first toes;
  • elbow, knee and ankle joints;
  • finger joints.

Diet for gout

The current anti-gout diet guidelines resemble the principles of healthy eating that are beneficial for all people. A diet for gout suppresses the synthesis and accelerates the excretion of uric acid from the patient's body.

The presence of this ailment in a person requires:

  • constant observation by a rheumatologist;
  • drug treatment during exacerbations and remissions;
  • strict control of the level of uric acid in the blood;
  • revise your lifestyle;
  • correction of your taste preferences.

Sustained remission can be achieved with a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, you must adhere to the following rules:

  • eat right, use foods low in purines, exclude animal fats, proteins, and carbohydrates from the diet;
  • reduction of any kind of load on the affected joint;
  • weight control, however, do not lose weight too quickly, as this can provoke a new attack of gout;
  • fasting days in compliance with a mono-diet (only one product is consumed during the day), medical fasting is strictly prohibited;
  • taking medications only as prescribed by a doctor.

Since uric acid is a product of the metabolic reactions of purines, it is found in all cells and organs of our body and in virtually all foods. A large number of harmful purines (adenine, guanine, xanthine and hypoxanthine) are found in animal products with high metabolic processes, for example, sausages, sausages, sausages, ham, bacon, as well as cells dividing at a high rate, such as yeast. Purines found in cocoa, tea and coffee, such as theophylline, caffeine, theobromine, do not pose a danger to gout. They are a source of organic acids that help alkalize the body and eliminate excess uric acid.

What not to eat for gout

In order to avoid recurrence of gouty attack, it is necessary to avoid foods that contain large amounts of purines. Therefore, a diet for gout implies, first of all, the exclusion of the following products from the patient's diet:

What not to eat with gout
  • various smoked meats;
  • meat offal (tongue, brains, liver, kidneys);
  • any kind of sausages, sausages, wieners;
  • table salt;
  • legumes (beans, peas, lentils);
  • mushrooms;
  • chickens;
  • lamb;
  • pork;
  • canned meat;
  • lard;
  • sorrel and spinach;
  • canned fish;
  • salted fish;
  • alcoholic beverages;
  • yeast drinks (beer);
  • salty and spicy cheese;
  • feta cheese;
  • cooking oils
  • seasonings and hot spices (bay leaf, vinegar, pepper, mustard, horseradish);
  • it is also strictly prohibited to consume fatty meat products, especially meat of young animals, as well as fatty fish;
  • rich meat, mushroom and fish broths.

Foods that are allowed in limited quantities for gout

The gout diet permits the use of certain foods, but their quantity must be strictly limited, especially during an acute attack:

  • pastry products;
  • eggs (no more than two eggs can be consumed per day);
  • low-fat fish varieties (no more than 1-2 times a week);
  • boiled beef, rabbit, chicken or turkey can be eaten no more than 1-2 times a week;
  • strong tea;
  • strong coffee and cocoa;
  • chocolate;
  • figs, plums and raspberries;
  • cauliflower;
  • greens;
  • radishes and turnips.

Tomatoes cause some controversy, there are two opposing opinions on this score: some experts recommend limiting their consumption, others consider tomatoes very useful for gout. Therefore, in this matter, it is better to be guided by personal opinion, depending on your state of health. Oatmeal also raises some doubts, since its use in boiled form increases uric acid in the body.

What you can eat for gout

For gout, you can eat from the list below. They are considered healthy and can be eaten in unlimited quantities.

What you can eat with gout

Bread and flour products

With gout, it is allowed to consume bread (rye, bran, white flour) in any quantity.

Meat and Poultry

You can eat 1 or 2 times a week rabbit meat, beef, poultry only in boiled form. It is not forbidden to bake meat, but without hot and piquant spices. The best option is steamed meat in a double boiler.

Soups

Vegetarian soups form the basis of the gouty diet. It is recommended to cook soups, cabbage soup, borscht in vegetable broths, with the addition of various cereals and vegetables. Also okroshka and beetroot.

Milk and dairy products

Fermented milk products are very useful for gout: curdled milk, kefir, yogurt. Milk, dairy products are also recommended: low-fat cottage cheese, mild and unsalted cheese.

Eggs

You can eat 1 - 2 eggs a day in any cooked form (poached eggs, boiled, orsini eggs).

Fish

Lean river fish can be steamed, boiled, baked. Low-fat fish broths are also helpful.

Pasta and cereals

For gout, you can eat a variety of cereals and pasta. These foods should not be eaten in large quantities or too often, as they contribute to weight gain, which is unacceptable for this ailment.

Vegetables

Vegetables are also a staple food for gout. They can be eaten raw, boiled and baked in unlimited quantities: potatoes, pumpkin, bell peppers, white cabbage, eggplant, zucchini, beets, carrots, cucumbers.

Fruits and berries

You can eat any berries and fruits (except raspberries and figs) fresh, as well as after heat treatment.

Sweets

From sweets you can eat marshmallow, marshmallow, marmalade, natural honey, jam.

Sweets

Drinks

You can: tea with milk, weak without milk, weak coffee with milk, vegetable and fruit juices, herbal teas.

Sauces, condiments and spices

Sauces can be prepared with vegetable broths, milk and sour cream, with cinnamon, citric acid and vanilla.

Fats

Food can be cooked with both sunflower oil and butter.

Sample Gout Diet Menu

Diet # 6 is prescribed for gout. This diet excludes foods that are sources of purines, table salt, fats, but allows the use of foods with sufficient amounts of vitamins, minerals and iron.

There is diet # 6 with normal and # 6e - with reduced energy value for people suffering from both gout and obesity. Such a diet consists of hypocaloric foods (limits the amount of baked goods, cereals, fats and easily digestible carbohydrates).

The diet includes alkaline mineral waters, citrus fruits, which prevent the accumulation of urate crystals in the joints and promote the rapid elimination of uric acid. Food is prepared mainly by steaming or boiled. Vegetables and fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. Diet in small portions 5 - 6 times a day, in the intervals between meals - drink plenty of fluids.

Nutrition for acute leg gout should be as follows:

  • vegetables and fruits -1. 5 kg (in broths, salads and as main courses);
  • cottage cheese - 400 grams (low-fat varieties);
  • kefir - 500 ml (low-fat, natural);
  • milk - 1 liter (diluted with water).

Gradually, as the acute period subsides, meat and fish products (cutlets, steamed meatballs, boiled meat and fish) are added to the gout's diet.

Anti-gout weekly menu

Monday

  • Breakfast: fruits with honey and yogurt (1 plate), tea with milk and breadcrumbs.
  • Second breakfast: a glass of milk or kefir.
  • Lunch: soup with vegetable broth with vegetable oil, vegetables or cereals and herbs.
  • Afternoon snack: carrot or potato cutlet, drizzled with low-fat cream.
  • Dinner: boiled egg with cucumber or a small portion of salad with cabbage.

Tuesday

  • Breakfast: cucumber salad with sour cream.
  • Second breakfast: fruit juice.
  • Lunch: rice soup with vegetable broth with potatoes, cabbage cutlets, dried fruit compote.
  • Afternoon snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: carrot zrazy with prunes, tea with lemon.

Wednesday

  • Breakfast: fresh cabbage salad with sour cream; tea with milk.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: vegetarian borsch, boiled chicken meat in sour cream sauce.
  • Afternoon snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: buckwheat porridge with milk, stuffed cabbage rolls (vegetables and rice).

Thursday

  • Breakfast: tea with milk, prunes with cottage cheese.
  • Second breakfast: fruit juice.
  • Lunch: cold or hot beetroot (optional), vegetable stew.
  • Afternoon snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: fruit jelly, milk rice porridge.
anti-gouty menu

Friday

  • Breakfast: beet salad with vegetable oil, tea with milk.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: soup - vegetable puree with pearl barley, cabbage schnitzel, fried in vegetable oil.
  • Afternoon snack: grape juice.
  • Dinner: carrot cutlets with sour cream, fruit jelly.

Saturday

  • Breakfast: boiled egg, tea with milk, carrots, stewed with vegetable oil.
  • Second breakfast: dried fruit compote.
  • Lunch: rice soup with potatoes on vegetable broth; fried cabbage cutlets.
  • Afternoon snack: watermelon.
  • Dinner: scrambled eggs, stewed carrots, tea with lemon.

Sunday

  • Breakfast: fresh cabbage salad with sour cream, milk tea.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: vegetarian borscht; boiled meat in sour cream sauce.
  • Afternoon snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: buckwheat porridge with milk, stewed carrots with vegetable oil.

Gout is not completely curable, but the frequency and intensity of its attacks can be controlled with diet. If you follow all the doctor's recommendations, then you can practically forget about the existence of such a disease.

Fasting days for gout

It is well known that disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, with gout, it is recommended to carry out fasting days. However, this does not mean that you have to starve all day. In addition, it is very dangerous, since the cessation of food intake into the body will provoke a sharp increase in uric acid in the blood. As a result, an acute gouty attack will begin. Therefore, fasting days should not be "hungry". You can eat only one type of vegetables all day, such as pumpkin or potatoes, or zucchini. Such fasting days resemble separate meals.

Fasting days for gout

You can also mix several types of vegetables and fruits if it is difficult to eat one product. In addition to vegetable fasting days, you can spend milk, kefir or curd days. When carrying out such an unloading diet, metabolic processes are simplified, which is of particular importance for gout. For such days, you can use a rice or rice-apple diet. To do this, boil a small amount of rice (75 g) in milk and take it in small portions throughout the day. In between main meals, you can eat apples both raw and baked. The total number of apples should not exceed 250 grams. Another product for a fasting day is watermelon. There is even a special "watermelon diet" for fasting days. Watermelon removes sodium urates from their bodies, so you need to eat it as often as possible.

General recommendations for patients with gout

  1. Avoid injuries to the big toe and avoid wearing tight shoes, as gout is very common as a result of joint injuries.
  2. During an acute attack of gout, keep your leg elevated without straining it. The leg should be relaxed and at rest.
  3. Apply a hot water bottle with ice to the affected joint for an acute attack of gout.
  4. Drinking plenty of herbal teas during an attack helps to remove uric acid from the body. During periods of remission, use mineral water in sufficient quantities with the addition of lemon juice.
  5. Follow a fasting diet, because it is a component of gouty treatment.
  6. Try to lose weight as it puts excessive stress on the affected joints and increases the risk of developing diabetes.
  7. Try to eat the "right fats". With a decrease in the level of purine bases, which are rich in food of animal origin, it is necessary to include vegetable oils in the diet: corn, olive, sunflower.
  8. Take vitamin and mineral complexes. With any diet, a balanced diet is essential. To do this, you must take a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.
  9. During the period of remission, you should lead an active lifestyle, often walk in the fresh air and engage in moderate sports.

Attention! During an exacerbation, standard recommendations on what you can and cannot eat should be set aside. If an acute attack of gout develops, seek immediate medical attention from a doctor. During this period, you should choose a diet for a fasting day, consisting of one product, or completely exclude all foods from the diet and drink only mineral water with lemon. You can eat in this way for no more than one to two days.