Gastritis is one of the most common diseases of our time. Unfortunately, this diagnosis largely deprives a person of important pleasures - gastronomic. A wide range of products for stomach diseases is prohibited, the use of many is sharply limited. What can you eat with gastritis, depending on the type and course of the disease? Are periodic deviations from the recommended diet possible and how to avoid the consequences of such violations?
What you can eat for gastritis with high acidity
For gastritis of this type (hyperacid), doctors advise to adhere to table number 1.
This therapeutic diet is a diet with a high energy value and an optimal balance of nutrients. It excludes products that aggressively act on the gastric mucosa, and also increase the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Too hot and, conversely, cold food is also prohibited. Table number 1 is based on easily digestible foods.
Foods should be taken five to six times a day, with limited portions.
The required period of dietary maintenance is determined by the gastroenterologist.
The main tasks of the "first table":
- decrease in hydrochloric acid secretion;
- exclusion of aggressive chemical, thermal and physical effects on the gastric mucosa;
- improvement of gastrointestinal tract motor function;
- removal of inflammation;
- activation of regenerative processes.
Table number 1 is shown for moderate exacerbation of chronic hyperacid gastritis, with stomach ulcers. It is also prescribed at the stage of recovery after acute gastritis.
Proteins, fats and carbohydrates in this type of diet are in a ratio of 1: 1: 4.
With an exacerbation of gastritis with high acidity, boiled and steam dishes are shown. The strict option provides for eating only in a shabby state. The amount of salt is not more than 10 g per day.
Now let's talk in detail: what can you eat with gastritis with high acidity? First of all, it is oatmeal, rice, semolina, buckwheat porridge, including dairy. Pasta and vermicelli are acceptable. The diet may contain lean meat and fish in the form of steamed meatballs, cutlets, meatballs. During the recovery stage, tender meat and fish can be cooked in one piece. From vegetables allowed potatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, cauliflower, carrots, beets, from fruits - fresh and baked apricots, peaches, bananas.
The list of recommended dairy products includes milk and cream, yogurt, fresh cottage cheese, cottage cheese casseroles and cheese cakes. You can drink non-acidic kefir.
Allowed first courses are vegetable puree soups, milk soups with chopped vegetables, cereals. Eggs can be boiled soft-boiled or made with a steam omelet. Stale white bread, hard dough cookies are allowed. Safe sweets for gastritis with high acidity - jelly (milk and fruit), mousses, jellies, marshmallows, marshmallows, sweet fruit jam.
With gastritis of a hyperacid type, you can drink non-acidic diluted juices from fruits and vegetables, jelly, dried fruit compotes, weakly brewed tea, sometimes cocoa with milk.
The list of foods and dishes prohibited for gastritis with increased secretory function is quite extensive. Meat and fish with a high fat content, smoked meats, industrial and home canned food, hot snacks, sauces and spices, fried foods are excluded. Do not eat acidic fruits and vegetables, as well as fruits with a lot of fiber. Banned coffee, carbonated drinks, chocolate and ice cream, broths, any fresh bread, pastries, spicy cheese, hard-boiled eggs, legumes.
Sample menu for the day:
Breakfast: omelet, cooked in a double boiler, or viscous rice porridge in milk, weak tea.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese, mashed with sugar.
Lunch: soup with vegetable broth, steamed fishcake, cauliflower puree, dried fruit compote.
Afternoon snack: milk jelly, hard dough cookies.
Dinner: mashed potatoes, beef meatballs, rosehip broth.
Before bed: non-acidic kefir.
What you can eat with low acidity gastritis
Table number 2, prescribed for low acidity of gastric juice (hypoacid type gastritis), is less stringent than that discussed above. But the diet also excludes coarse, tough, indigestible food, hot and cold dishes. Frequent meals are recommended, portion sizes are small. The timing of the diet is agreed with the doctor.
The purpose of the appointment of the treatment table number 2 is to stimulate gastric secretion, improve gastrointestinal motility. The diet is indicated for exacerbation of chronic gastritis with secretory insufficiency, during the rehabilitation period after acute gastritis, as well as for enteritis and colitis.
The ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrates is about the same as in the above diet.
Culinary processing of dishes, except for boiling and steaming, allows stewing and baking. You don't have to grind food.
With an exacerbation of gastritis with low acidity, you can eat:
- boiled, steamed and stewed dishes from lean red meat, poultry and fish, including minced meat;
- dairy and dairy-free cereals made from any cereals, except millet, pearl barley and barley;
- soups with vegetable, unsaturated meat or fish broth.
The list of acceptable flour products includes dried white bread, pastries made from non-rich dough, biscuits, dry cookies. Eggs are allowed in the form of omelet and soft-boiled.
Dairy products with hypoacid gastritis are allowed almost any, except for very fatty ones. Kefir, yogurt, yogurt, fresh cottage cheese and curd dishes are recommended. Milk for gastritis with low acidity can be drunk without restrictions.
Table number 2 allows the inclusion in the diet of different types of vegetables, with the exception of those that aggressively act on the gastric mucosa (radish, radish, onion, garlic, pepper). They can be eaten boiled, baked, or stewed. Sweet fruit, baked or pureed, is allowed. In small quantities, sweet fruit jam, honey, caramel, toffee, marmalade, marshmallow, marshmallow, mousse, jelly are allowed.
Can chocolate be used for gastritis? The answer, alas, is negative. Fats and caffeine, which are rich in a delicacy loved by many, irritate the gastric mucosa, which is unacceptable for any form of gastritis. Milk chocolate is especially harmful.
- fatty meat and fish;
- rich meat and fish broths, soups from them;
- black and fresh white bread, butter dough;
- smoked meats, pickles, canned food (including homemade);
- hard boiled eggs;
- fresh vegetables, fruits with rough skin and seeds;
- confectionery, ice cream;
- hot and fatty sauces, spices.
Sample menu for the day:
Breakfast: oatmeal with milk / soft-boiled egg, cheese, cocoa.
Lunch: chicken noodle soup, boiled beef, buckwheat porridge, compote.
Afternoon snack: cottage cheese casserole, fruit jelly.
Dinner: baked fish, vegetable stew, herbal tea.
Before bed: curdled milk.
What you can eat with chronic gastritis
In the remission stage of a chronic disease, treatment table number 5 is shown. This is a diet with a limited lipid content and low calorie content, excluding the intake of refractory animal fats, rough food, foods rich in extractive substances. All this helps to reduce the load on the gastrointestinal tract. Dieting is shown for at least two years.
The main tasks of table number 5 are to provide adequate nutrition, sparing the digestive organs, as well as to reduce gastric secretion, improve the functioning of the liver and biliary tract.
The diet is indicated for all types of chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis in remission, for diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. The approximate ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrates for this type of diet is 1: 1: 5.
From the methods of culinary processing, boiling and steaming are allowed, in rare cases - baking and stewing. Banned fried foods, vegetables with a high fiber content, it is recommended to wipe meat.
The list of permitted foods and dishes includes vegetarian soups, lean meat, fish, cereals from any cereals. From flour - dried bread made from rye and wheat flour, uncooked pastries, dry biscuits and lingering cookies. The diet can include low-fat dairy products, mild and unsalted cheese. Eggs are allowed in limited quantities (no more than one per day) in the form of an omelet or soft-boiled.
Vegetables for chronic gastritis can be eaten almost any, except for white cabbage, radish, radish, spinach, sorrel, green onions, garlic. But vegetable dishes must be mashed or heat-treated. Sweet fruits are also allowed.
You can drink compotes, non-acidic fruit juices, rosehip broth, weakly brewed tea, coffee with milk. When it comes to sweets, there is no difference from the above options for therapeutic diets.
Table number 5 forbids:
- any fried food;
- baked goods, fresh bread, puff pastry;
- canned food, pickles, marinades and smoked meats;
- fatty meats, poultry and fish, sausages, offal, refractory animal fats;
- meat and fish broths;
- fatty dairy products, spicy cheese;
- confectionery, ice cream, chocolate;
- hot spices;
- cold and carbonated drinks, black coffee, cocoa.
Sample menu for the day:
Breakfast: protein omelet with vegetables or cheese cakes with raisins, tea with milk, biscuit.
Second breakfast: baked apple with honey.
Lunch: potato soup, steamed meatballs, buckwheat porridge, tomato juice.
Afternoon snack: protein omelet with vegetables, jelly.
Dinner: boiled chicken fillet, rice, beet salad with prunes, rosehip broth.
Before bed: kefir.
Is it possible to drink alcohol, coffee and tea with gastritis
Drinks were briefly discussed above - when describing the types of medical nutrition. Gastroenterologists advise introducing compotes, jelly, rosehip decoction, vegetable and fruit juices in low concentration into the diet. But what about drinks that are traditionally considered harmful, but at the same time occupy a large place in our gastronomic culture? How categorical are doctors about alcohol, tea and coffee?
Alcoholnot only strongly irritates the damaged gastric mucosa, but also increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, with gastritis, it is, of course, contraindicated. In the phase of exacerbation, alcohol intake is out of the question. In the stage of remission, alcohol is also highly undesirable, especially when it comes to its regular use.
Departure from this rule is possible only if certain conditions are met. Firstly, alcohol can be consumed no more than once a month in a small amount (1 glass of wine, 1 mug of beer, 50 grams of brandy). Secondly, the drinks must be natural, without chemical additives. And finally, with gastritis, in no case should you drink alcohol on an empty stomach.
What kind of alcohol can I drink for gastritis?
This can be dry or semi-sweet red wine, "live" unfiltered beer, high-quality vodka or cognac. Cheap wine drinks, "energy" cocktails, canned beer are strictly prohibited. Sparkling wines are unacceptable due to their high carbon dioxide content.
Caffeineand tannins, contained in the invigorating drink, activate the production of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, with gastritis of the hyperacid type, coffee is strictly contraindicated. For patients with insufficient gastric secretory function, it is allowed in small quantities (no more than 2 cups per day). In this case, the following rules must be observed:
- coffee should be diluted with milk or cream;
- the drink should not be too hot;
- it is recommended to give preference to natural freshly ground coffee, as instant coffee contains a huge amount of tannins;
- Coffee, like alcohol, should not be drunk on an empty stomach.
Of course, intermittent consumption of the drink is permissible only during remission.
Like coffee, black and green tea is rich in caffeine and tannins, therefore it also stimulates secretory function. At the same time, the drink has beneficial properties and promotes the speedy regeneration of the gastric mucosa.
With hypoacid gastritis, tea can be drunk without restrictions, with hyperacid gastritis - in moderation. The drink should not be overly hot and strong. Black tea is best diluted with milk.
Is it okay to deviate from the diet?
Diet therapy is one of the main methods of treating gastritis of any type, therefore it is highly undesirable to deviate from the doctor's recommendations. However, we all know how difficult it is to give up your favorite food, especially if a sudden change in diet is required. How to follow a diet when gastronomic temptations lie in wait at every turn?
Here are some tips:
You must follow the prescribed diet, avoid hunger. Long breaks between meals are harmful in and of themselves; in addition, a hungry person is more easily tempted to eat something forbidden.
When going to the grocery store, it is better to bypass the departments of sausages, canned food and other harmful products. When there is no prohibited food in the refrigerator, it is easier to resist temptations.
It is important that people around you are aware of the need to follow a diet and treat it with understanding.
If possible, you should avoid feasts where fatty, spicy foods and alcohol are abundant.
Homemade food is preferable, including at work: taking the "right" lunch in a container with you will save yourself from the temptation to buy something forbidden.
However, it is very difficult to strictly adhere to gastronomic restrictions. Practice shows that even the most disciplined patients from time to time allow themselves to deviate from the therapeutic diet.
In cases where you cannot refrain from consuming prohibited products, you must at least minimize the associated risk. To prevent the exacerbation of chronic gastritis, to avoid the occurrence of pain in the stomach, heartburn and other unpleasant symptoms, in particular, the intake of medicines - gastroprotectors helps. These are drugs belonging to the group of antacids and adsorbents and have enveloping and astringent properties. These include, for example, bismuth preparations. Medicines based on this active substance form a thin film on the gastric mucosa. For several hours, it provides protection against the aggressive action of hydrochloric acid and external factors (rough, spicy food, alcohol, etc. ). In addition, such drugs increase the intrinsic protective properties of the mucous membrane and have an antiseptic effect. It is recommended to take them shortly before the intended departure from the diet: in this case, the risk of negative consequences is minimal. These drugs are non-prescription, however, they also have a number of contraindications, so we recommend that you consult with your doctor first.
With any type of gastritis, you must follow the diet prescribed by your doctor. Basically, for diseases of the stomach, tables number 1, 2 and 5 are recommended. And since they all imply a large number of restrictions, it is very difficult to keep from the "forbidden fruit". To minimize the risk of an exacerbation of the disease in the event of nutritional errors, it is recommended to take gastroprotectors for prophylactic purposes.